Mental Retardation (MR) / Intellectual Disability is a clinical entity by it self. It is not a disease or an illness. Intellectual disability can be a congenital or an acquired condition. Early identification and early intervention can limit the extent of the disability.

Intellectual disability can occur alone or can be a part a syndrome. The etiology of Intellectual disability can be due prental, intranatal and postnatal causes. Of the many causes, some can be treated. Prevention is possible by creating awareness and educating the public. Treatment plan depends on the etiology.

Of the few associated conditions causing intellectual disability are neurological causes, metabolic conditions, genetic abnormalities and congential causes. Of the neurological causes, Epilepsy is a major problem. About 30% of the children with intellectual disability have epilespy. Epilepsy can be treated with medication. Metabolic conditions like phenylketonuria if identified and treated early can present mental retardation. Many of the genetic conditions causing mental retardation can not be treated. Other comorbid conditions present in individuals with intellectual disability are Autism, ADHD, Behavioral problems etc.

The concept of early intervention in intellectual disability has made a wonderful prognosis in children below the age of 3 - 4 years of age with development delay. The earlier the children are identified with developmental delay the better are the chance to main streaming them.

Medical management can help in decreasing the extent of retardation. There is promising line of management to some particular entities. Anticonvulsants have markedly chanced clinical presentation of children with intellectual disability due epilepsy. Conditions like Mental Retardation, Epilepsy, ADHD, Anxiety Nurosis, Schizo pherenia and Sleep disturbances the role medication has proven data. Medical management combined with interventions has good prognosis.

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